The optimum design of an anchor is primarily influenced by the specific composition of the ocean floor which is generally categorized into three groups.
Almost ideally consistent. Anchors specifically designed for sand bottoms reach excellent holding efficiency.
Varies most in consistency and offers little resistance to dragging forces.
Rock or Marl
Very poor holding ground. Anchor's dead weight is only asset.
Expressed in holding power ratio, or holding force per anchor weight. The proof test involves applying a static load to the assembled anchor to test its structural design and material properties related to the holding force.
Affected greatly by the angle of flukes. For the flukes to enter the bottom at an angle that will allow the crown or head to penetrate to a depth producing maximum efficiency, the angle of the fluke to the shaft should approximate 50 degrees in mud bottoms and 30 degrees in sand.